This document is based on the limited available data as of the release date and general recommendations for zoonotic disease infection prevention and control. This is a rapidly evolving situation. Guidance will be updated as new information becomes available. States may have their own specific requirements for these circumstances.
This interim guidance is for public health professionals managing the home care and isolation of people with COVID-19 who have pets or other animals (including service or working animals) in the same home. The intent of this guidance is to facilitate preparedness and establish practices that can help people and animals stay safe and healthy. At this time, there is no evidence that companion animals, including pets, can spread COVID-19.
Definitions Used in this Guidance
Household animals, for the purposes of this document, refers to companion animals, including pets and service animals, that live in a home or on the premises of a home. This document does not address instances where a person with COVID-19 interacts with livestock (e.g., pigs, goats, sheep or cattle), wildlife, or other animals on their premises or through duties outside their home.
Public health veterinarian, for the purposes of this document, refers to the state public health veterinarian or designated public health official responsible for handling animal-related public health issues in their jurisdiction.
When to Contact a State Public Health Veterinarian
A state public health veterinarianpdf iconexternal icon should be contacted by public health professionals, animal health professionals or veterinarians that have discovered a household animal with a new, concerning illness and that resides with a person with COVID-19. Some jurisdictions do not have state public health veterinarians, or geographic, resource, or time limitations may prevent public health veterinarian from managing a situation involving household animals.
Suggested Guidance for Homes with Household Animals
In addition to other prevention measures, people with COVID-19 and in-home isolation should be advised to limit interaction with household animals. Specifically, while a person infected with COVID-19 is symptomatic, they should maintain separation from household animals as they would with other household members, and avoid direct contact with pets, including petting, snuggling, being kissed or licked, sleeping in the same location, and sharing food. In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Actexternal icon, service animals should be permitted to remain with their handlers. If possible, a household member should be designated to care for pets in the home and should follow standard handwashing practices before and after interacting with the household animal. If a person with COVID-19 must care for pets, they should ensure they wash their hands before and after caring for pets.
Care for household animals that are sick or injured should be coordinated with the household’s local veterinarian. In order to ensure the veterinary clinic is prepared for the household animal, the owner should call ahead and arrange the hospital or clinic visit. If an owner is sick with COVID-19, a family member or friend from outside the household may bring the animal to a veterinary hospital or clinic. Telemedicine may also be appropriate to provide consultation with a veterinarian if the owner is a COVID-19 case and is unable to find an alternative caretaker to bring the pet to the hospital. Veterinarians that see animals that have a new, concerning illness and reside with a person with COVID-19 should contact their state public health veterinarianpdf iconexternal icon.
In some instances, household animals may require alternative care or re-homing if the owner is unable to care for the animal or has surrendered the animal. A home receiving a new household animal should follow standard handwashing practices before and after interacting with the animal. Shelters receiving household animals should ensure they review and adhere to their established biosafety and biosecurity practices for infectious diseases.
Suggested Communications with Community Veterinarians
- At this time there is no evidence that companion animals, including pets, can become sick with or spread COVID-19.
- At this time, there is no evidence that the virus that causes COVID-19 can spread to people from the skin or fur of companion animals.
- Veterinarians and their staff should review and adhere to their biosafety and biosecurity protocols for infectious diseases to ensure the safety of their patients.
- Veterinarians and their staff should review the concepts in NASPHV Compendium of Veterinary Standard Precautions for Zoonotic Disease Prevention in Veterinary Personnelexternal icon. This document outlines routine infection prevention practices designed to minimize transmission of zoonotic pathogens from animals to veterinary personnel.
- These infection prevention and control guidelines should be consistently implemented in veterinary hospitals, regardless of ongoing outbreaks of infectious diseases, but are especially important during an outbreak of an emerging infectious disease such as COVID-19.
- Contact your state public health veterinarianpdf iconexternal icon if you are seeing a new, concerning illness in an animal that has had close contact with a person with COVID-19.